The second is a model of reproductive character displacement; it differs from Lemmon et al. When two closely related species come into contact, com-petitive interactions sometimes lead to morphological This process is due to “phenotypic evolution in a species ... For example, early theoretical work showed that character displacement promotes coexistence by Ecological character displace- Character displacement is the term used to describe an evolutionary change that occurs when two similar species inhabit the same environment. One example is apparent competition [43,44]. Under such conditions, natural selection favors a divergence in the characters--morphology, ecology, behavior, or physiology--of the organisms. The Models. Following the dissemination of the concept, character displacement was viewed as an important force in structuring ecological communities, and biologists identified numerous examples. character displacement (Figure I) [19]. Species interactions other than resource competition, however, could produce the same displacement patterns as ECD. We demonstrate a causal role for competition in ecological character displacement. The appeal of character displacement remained high, nevertheless, despite uncertainty over its importance. only with ecological character displacement and is essentially the model of Case and Taper (2000), extended to include hybridization independent of phenotype. Ecological character displacement is an important adaptive process in generating biodiversity 15 (Schluter, 2000; Pfennig & Pfennig, 2010). A third pattern, species-for-species matching, is occasionally cited: the replicated, independent evolution of guild structure [2]. Using populations of the bacterium Escherichia coli that have adaptively diversified into ecotypes exploiting different carbon resources, we show that when interspecific competition is relaxed, phenotypic distributions converge.When we reinstate competition, phenotypic distributions diverge. Sixty‐one published cases of character displacement involving closely related species (congeners) make up the observational data set. The first deals only with ecological character displacement and is essentially the model of Case and Taper (2000), extended to include hybridization independent of phenotype.The second is a model of reproductive character displacement; it differs from Lemmon et al. The first goal of our study was to determine if ecological sorting and character displacement might occur in communities of Clarkia species that share pollinators in the southern foothills of the Sierra Nevada. The outcome is that 170 cases of ecological character displacement have now been described. I give an overview of the observational and experimental evidence for ecological character displacement in adaptive radiation. Character displacement is an evolutionary divergence that occurs when two similar species inhabit the same environment. The role of reproductive character displacement or reinforcement in increased isolation has been shown in many examples in hybridizing taxa [16,30-37]. the differences in prey consumption, the observed character dis-placement has a functional ecological correlate, and we can link changes in form with changes in function in this apparent example of character displacement. Results. We describe four different but related models for ecological and reproductive character displacement. 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